The evolution and policy implications of

Precursors to the idea[ edit ] The cyclic cosmos[ edit ] Mircea Eliade has suggested that in many pre-modern cultures one finds the concept of the Fall and a "nostalgia for paradise". However, for those cultures that have a cyclic cosmology, the concept of a progressive deterioration of the universe as in the HesiodicHinduand Lurianic cosmologies of a degradation from a Golden Age to an Iron Age or Kali Yuga might be balanced by a corresponding ascent to more spiritual stages and a return to paradisical conditions.

The evolution and policy implications of

A similar interpretation was one created by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galtonknown as eugenicswhich claimed that human civilization was subverting natural selection by allowing the less bright and less healthy to survive and out-breed the more smart and more healthy.

Later advocates of this theory suggested radical and often coercive social measures in an attempt to "correct" this imbalance. Thomas Huxley spent much time demonstrating through a series of thought experiments that it would not only be immoral, but impossible, [1] Stephen Jay Gould and others have argued that social Darwinism is based on misconceptions of evolutionary theory, and many ethicists regard it as a case of the is-ought problem.

After the atrocities of the Holocaust became linked with eugenics, it greatly fell out of favor with public and scientific opinion, though it was never universally accepted by either, and at no point in Nazi literature is Charles Darwin or the scientific theory of evolution mentioned.

Jim Walker compiled a list of quotes from Mein Kampf in which Hitler described himself as The evolution and policy implications of Christian, or mentioned God, Jesus or a biblical passage.

Hitler often used Christian beliefs like, "Jews killed Jesus," to justify his anti-Semitism. Many proponents of animal rights hold that if animals and humans are of the same nature, then rights cannot be distinct to humans.

Circumcision: scientific references

Charles Darwin, in fact, considered " sympathy " to be one of the most important moral virtues — and that it was, indeed, a product of The evolution and policy implications of selection and a trait beneficial to social animals including humans.

Darwin further argued that the most "sympathetic" societies would consequently be the most "successful. As man advances in civilization, and small tribes are united into larger communities, the simplest reason would tell each individual that he ought to extend his social instincts and sympathies to all the members of the same nation, though personally unknown to him.

This point being once reached, there is only an artificial barrier to prevent his sympathies extending to the men of all nations and races. If, indeed, such men are separated from him by great differences in appearance or habits, experience unfortunately shows us how long it is, before we look at them as our fellow-creatures.

This virtue, one of the noblest with which man is endowed, seems to arise incidentally from our sympathies becoming more tender and more widely diffused, until they are extended to all sentient beings.

As soon as this virtue is honored and practiced by some few men, it spreads through instruction and example to the young, and eventually becomes incorporated in public opinion. Evolution and Ethics[ edit ] This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.

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September Learn how and when to remove this template message Thomas HuxleyDarwin's Bulldog, spent much of his book Evolution and Ethics debunking Social Darwinism, piece by piece. The following is a summary of his arguments in the Prolegomena, the most detailed and comprehensive of the two sections devoted to it.

It should be noted that Huxley is here attempting to disprove the science behind Social Darwinism; as such, the moral arguments only come in later in the essay.

Without constant upkeep, it would return to the state of nature, even the very walls surrounding it crumbling in sufficient time, but by constant diligence of the gardener, may be maintained in a state of art.

This "state of art" is not permanent: It is instead the replacement of natural selection by artificial selection through the human energy expended in maintaining it. This artificial selection is, however, part of natural selection: It is the action upon a set of species by the human species by way of the human species expending energy through evolved intelligence on its choice of selection.

It is thus no less natural than, for example, a predator expending energy through evolved instinct on preferentially hunting a certain prey species. The presence of humans may change the dynamic, but in a perfectly natural way.

Hence, it is part of the cosmic process, that is natural laws, even though the "histological process" may remove many aspects of the "struggle for existence" that is a key part of the natural laws that apply to biology, from its preferred plant species by substituting human work for work done by the species itself.

Not only is the state of nature hostile to the state of art of the garden; but the principle of the horticultural process, by which the latter is created and maintained, is antithetic to that of the cosmic process.

The evolution and policy implications of

The characteristic feature of the latter is the intense and unceasing competition of the struggle for existence. The characteristic of the former is the elimination of that struggle, by the removal of the conditions which give rise to it.

The tendency of the cosmic process is to bring about the adjustment of the forms of plant life to the current conditions; the tendency of the horticultural process is the adjustment of the conditions to the needs of the forms of plant life which the gardener desires to raise.

Nature uses unrestricted breeding to let hundreds compete for the natural resources that would only support one, and uses frost and drought to kill off the weak and unlucky, requiring not just strength, but "flexibility and good fortune.

However, though the gardener's actions may have circumvented natural selection, he can still improve the species, should he find them wanting, through selective breeding. The struggle for existence is not actually required for improvement: Can we then apply this to humans?

The theory of evolution is a naturalistic theory of the history of life on earth (this refers to the theory of evolution which employs methodological naturalism and is taught in schools and universities). Merriam-Webster's dictionary gives the following definition of evolution: "a theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the. The theory of evolution by natural selection has also been adopted as a foundation for various ethical and social systems, such as social Darwinism, an idea that preceded the publication of The Origin of Species, popular in the 19th century, which holds that "the survival of the fittest" (a phrase coined in by Herbert Spencer, 6 years. Chinese Education Policy in the Context of Decentralization and Marketization: Evolution and Implications reform and open-door policy. It concludes that the equal and balanced development in education in China entails the bringing the state back in the education .

Let's see how far we can take the analogy with respect to colonization: Suppose a shipload of English colonists sent to form a settlement, in such a country as Tasmania was in the middle of the last century. On landing, they find themselves in the midst of a state of nature, widely different from that left behind them in everything but the most general physical conditions.

The common plants, the common birds and quadrupeds, are as totally distinct as the men from anything to be seen on the side of the globe from which they come. The colonists proceed to put an end to this state of things over as large an area as they desire to occupy.

They clear away the native vegetation, extirpate or drive out the animal population, so far as may be necessary, and take measures to defend themselves from the re-immigration of either. In their place, they introduce English grain and fruit trees; English dogs, sheep, cattle, horses; and English men; in fact, they set up a new Flora and Fauna and a new variety of mankind, within the old state of nature.

Kansas Evolution Hearings: Jonathan Wells, Bruce Simat, Giuseppe Sermonti, and Ralph Seelke

Their farms and pastures represent a garden on a great scale, and themselves the gardeners who have to keep it up, in watchful antagonism to the old regime.discuss some of their policy implications. In particular, we provide updated top income series for the US - including new estimates for , showing a sharp rebound of top 1% share, following the fall.

The Evolution of the EU Common Agricultural Policy: Implications for Ukraine Research (PDF Available) · September with 83 Reads DOI: /RG Evolution and Policy Implications— Abstract This Global Challenges Report analyzes the patent landscapes of four Climate Change Mitigation Technologies (CCMTs) to inform policy discussions by providing empirical evidence of innovation trends and technology ownership.

The four CCMTs are biofuels, solar thermal, solar. Jan 16,  · Implications of Evolutionary Principles on Morality; Evolutionary Principle Evolutionary Implication Biblical Principle; Evolution is the result of random events (genetic Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.

mutations, deletions, duplications, etc) that . Combining antibiotics is a promising strategy for increasing treatment efficacy and for controlling resistance evolution.

When drugs are combined, their effects on cells may be amplified or weakened, that is the drugs may show synergistic or antagonistic interactions.

These implications, it turns out, are of no small consequence, because they relate to such matters as ethics, morals, truth, values, and a host of other concepts of importance to humankind.

Without doubt, these implications bear investigating. One of the explanations for man’s origin is .

Implications of Evolution in Morality/Culture