Reconstruction refers to the period following the Civil War of rebuilding the United States. It was a time of great pain and endless questions. On what terms would the Confederacy be allowed back into the Union? Who would establish the terms, Congress or the President?
But in the years between andthe bloody and destructive Civil War destroyed that prosperity. The conflict brought death and destruction to the state on a scale that few could have imagined, and the war and the tumultuous Reconstruction era that followed it left a legacy of bitterness that the passage of many years did little to assuage.
Prelude to War In the s, Arkansas was a frontier state. Most Arkansans, especially those who lived in the highlands of the north and west, were farmers engaged in subsistence agriculture on small parcels of land.
Cotton was the driving force behind the transformation from subsistence to plantation agriculture in this region. ByArkansas produced more than twenty-six million pounds of cotton, the majority of it in the Delta, and the expansion of cotton production seemed certain to continue throughout the next decade.
The growth of slavery in the state was directly linked to this expansion. ByArkansas was home to more thanslaves, and one in five white citizens was a slave owner. The majority of these held only a few slaves. Spurred by the rising price of cotton, the state prospered in the s. Every region of Arkansas benefited from this economic upsurge, but the economic gains in the plantation regions of the southern and eastern lowlands exceeded those in areas where there were few slaves.
Throughout the s, the social, economic, and political dissonance between the highlands and the lowlands increased. While the majority supported slavery, most Arkansans remained loyal to the Union and continued to hope for a peaceful solution to the slavery question. As the rest of the nation became increasingly polarized over slavery in the s, Arkansans seemed more concerned with the affairs of daily life.
The election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the presidency inon a platform committed to halting the expansion of slavery, set in motion events that eventually drew Arkansas into the national crisis.
Between December 20,and February 1,seven Deep South states passed ordinances of secession, declaring that they had severed their bonds with the United States. Despite intense pressure from secessionist elements, including state officials and representatives from the seceded states, a bare majority of the delegates rebuffed every attempt to pass a secession ordinance.
The delegates did agree to hold a statewide referendum on the issue on the first Monday in August. Despite the heated words and animosities that characterized the Secession Conventionmany Unionists and secessionists were largely in agreement on one major issue—any attempt to coerce the seceded states back into the Union would be legitimate grounds for Arkansas to secede.
Three days later, President Lincoln called for troops to suppress the rebellion, including men from Arkansas. Arkansas was now forced to choose sides. The Secession Convention reassembled in Little Rock Pulaski County on May 6, and the delegates voted overwhelmingly the final vote was 69—1 for secession.
The War in and The majority of Arkansans initially supported the decision to secede, but a significant minority opposed the move from the beginning. The most serious challenge to the authority of the new Confederate state government arose in the mountainous regions of the north-central part of the state, where area residents formed a clandestine organization known as the Arkansas Peace Society.
Local militias eventually broke up the society, but resistance to Confederate authority continued throughout the course of the war. Despite having the third smallest white population of any Confederate state, Arkansas supplied more troops for the Union army than any other Confederate state except Tennessee.
Outside the northern and northwestern regions of the state, many Arkansans greeted secession with enthusiasm. Historian James Willis has written that no other state had a larger proportion of military-age men fighting for the Confederacy than Arkansas.
Many of the young men who rushed to enlist were immediately inducted into the regular Confederate army and sent east of the Mississippi River. Others remained to serve in the state forces.
The state remained free of fighting inbut in Februarya Union army of 12, men led by Brigadier General Samuel Curtis chased a Confederate army out of southwest Missouri and across the border into Arkansas. The Union army went into camp near Bentonville Benton County. In early March, Confederate Major General Earl Van Dorn moved north with a well-equipped army of 16, men, determined to drive the Federal troops back into Missouri or destroy them.
Van Dorn succeeded in getting a part of his army behind Yankees, but his force was strung out for miles, and his men were exhausted from the long march in inclement weather.
Curtis was initially caught by surprise, but he quickly regrouped and went on the attack. For two days March 7 and 8the armies clashed near a broad plateau called Pea Ridge. By the end of the fighting on the second day, the Union army had scored a decisive victory.
Following the battle, Van Dorn moved what remained of his army—along with all available animals, equipment, arms, and ammunition—east of the Mississippi River, leaving Arkansas virtually defenseless. But lengthening supply lines and a determined stand by local militia and Texas cavalrymen in White County forced the Federals to abandon their plans to take the capital.
Instead, they marched eastward across the state toward the Mississippi River, liberating slaves and destroying property as they went. Throughout the remainder of the war, wherever the Federal army went, the institution of slavery crumbled. The late summer and early fall witnessed changes in both the political and military leadership of Confederate Arkansas.
A disgruntled Rector announced that he would seek another term, but in the ensuing election, he was defeated by Harris Flanaginan attorney and former Whig from Clark County.Watch video · The Union victory in the Civil War in may have given some 4 million slaves their freedom, but the process of rebuilding the South during the Reconstruction period () introduced a new.
Reconstruction: Reconstruction, the period () after the American Civil War during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 states that had seceded.
Which statement most accurately describes President Abraham Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction after the Civil War? rutadeltambor.comrners should be made to pay for their rebellion.
rutadeltambor.com Union should be restored as quickly as possible. The presidency of Abraham Lincoln began on March 4, , when he was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States, and ended upon his assassination and death on April 15, , 42 days into his second term.
Lincoln was the first member of the recently-established Republican Party elected to the presidency. He was succeeded by Vice President . The national debate over Reconstruction began during the Civil War.
In December , less than a year after he issued the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham Lincoln announced the first comprehensive program for Reconstruction, the Ten Percent Plan. President Lincoln was assassinated at the end of the Civil War, however, and never had the chance to implement his Reconstruction plan.
When Andrew Johnson became president, he was from the South and wanted to be even more lenient to the Confederate States than Lincoln.