When a script calls for a consumer product, and no one has offered the producers a Product Placement deal, a television program must resort to making up a brand — or, in some cases, obscuring a real brand so that it can't be identified.
Four fundamental models with a total of eight paired variations are identified. Advertising communication models are theories about "how advertising works. Managers operate with these theories or models, explicitly or implicitly, whenever they create, approve, or test advertising.
Most available theories or models share one of two common faults: The purpose of the present article is to provide a new interpretation of previous approaches and to extend the context of advertising communication models to incorporate the other inputs that advertising managers need.
Firstly, a general structure of the necessary components of an advertising communication model is provided. Secondly, four fundamental brand attitude strategies are described which, together with two prior types of brand awareness alternatives, produces a total of eight basic advertising communication models.
Thirdly, advertising tactics for these models are listed. Finally, major implication for the process of pre-testing advertising are discussed. The last two of these steps are concerned with marketing objectives, to which advertising must contribute, namely: These will not be discussed further in this article.
A more detailed exposition of the points summarized here can be found in those chapters. For the present article, the authors would like to acknowledge the comments of Robert J.
In order for advertising communication to be successful, the prospective buyers in the target audience must: Also "action" can include a variety of desired target behaviors on the part of distributors or consumers, such as sales inquiries, visits to retail outlets, and other forms of purchase-related behaviors whenever purchase is consummated by personal selling or other marketing inputs.
The overall sequence should not be confused with the hierarchy-of-effects notion, which is essentially a theory about the communication effects step. Rather, our approach postulates a "heterarchy" of effects, at both the processing step and the communication effects step, as will be explained later.
An advertising communication model should incorporate all four steps. Essentially, an advertising communication model sets objectives for each step, and provides strategies and tactical detail on how each step is supposed to lead causally to the next one.
Target audience action objectives B. Exposure plan A generic structural checklist for advertising communication models is given in the Appendix.
The checklist asks for sufficient detail to enable a comprehensive advertising communication model to be stated while at the same time attempting to be short and explicit enough so that managers will use it Little In the succeeding sections of the article, we explain how the checklist is used to develop an advertising communication model suited to particular advertising situations.
A further note about the checklist is that the manager is asked to indicate whether the input for each component of the model stems from research or from judgment.
Checking the research box means the manager considers that adequate research supports the input; if not, the manager still supplies the input but checks the judgment box.It's been a long time coming.
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