A friend's student asked her about an Irish warrior princess. Unfortunately, I have found no other information. I would appreciate any info or ideas about other places to look. I have checked out a number of women's history sites on the web to no avail.
Although the term is not used in the book, it is a close relative of two of the book's central concepts, " doublethink " and " Newspeak ".
Another variant, "doubletalk", also referring to deliberately ambiguous speech, did exist at the time Orwell wrote his book, but the usage of "doublespeak", as well as of "doubletalk", in the sense emphasizing ambiguity clearly postdates the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Hermanpolitical economist and media analyst, has highlighted some examples of doublespeak and doublethink in modern society. In his essay " Politics and the English Language ", George Orwell observes that political language serves to distort and obfuscate reality.
Where there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, Theoretical approaches[ edit ] Although the theories that premise doublespeak are still indefinite, there are some theories that have parallels with the theory of doublespeak and Orwell's ideology in Nineteen Eighty-Four and might possibly provide a better understanding of where doublespeak's theories could have come from.
Conflict theories[ edit ] Due to the inherently deceptive nature of doublespeak as well as its prominent use in politics, doublespeak has been linked[ by whom? Conflict theories detract from ideas of society being naturally in harmony, instead placing emphasis on political and material inequality as its structural features.
Antonio Gramsci 's concepts on cultural hegemonyin particular, suggest that the culture and values of the economic elite — the bourgeoisie — become indoctrinated as "common sense" to the working-class, allowing for the maintenance of the status quo through misplaced belief.
Being himself one of the leaders of the Communist Party of Italyhis theories had, in turn, been strongly influenced by the German social thinker Karl Marxand have their ideological roots grounded in Marxist theory of false consciousness and capitalist exploitation. While Gramsci's views argue that culture beliefs, perceptions and values allows the ruling class to maintain domination, Marx's explanation is along more economic lines, with concepts such as commodity fetishism demonstrating how the ideology of the bourgeoisie in this case, the existence of property as a social creation rather than an "eternal entity" dominate over that of the working classes.
On the other hand, Terrence P. Moran of the US National Council of Teachers of English has compared the use of doublespeak in the mass media to laboratory experiments conducted on rats, where a batch of rats were deprived of food, before one half was fed sugar and water and the other half a saccharin solution.
Both groups exhibited behavior indicating that their hunger was satisfied, but rats in the second group which were fed saccharin solution died from malnutrition. Moran highlights the structural nature of doublespeak, and notes that social institutions such as the mass media adopt an active, top-down approach in managing opinion.
Therefore, Moran parallels doublespeak to producing an illusionary effect: Like the saccharine environment, an environment created or infiltrated by doublespeak provides the appearance of nourishment and the promise of survival, but the appearance is illusionary and the promise false.
Contemporary writings[ edit ] Doublespeak might also have some connections with contemporary theories. Herman and Noam Chomsky note in their book that Orwellian doublespeak is an important component of the manipulation of the English language in American media, through a process called "dichotomization"; a component of media propaganda involving "deeply embedded double standards in the reporting of news".
For example, the use of state funds by the poor and financially needy is commonly referred to as " social welfare " or " handouts ", which the "coddled" poor "take advantage of". These terms, however, do not apply to other beneficiaries of government spending such as military spending.
Noam Chomsky argues in Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media that people in modern society consist of decision-makers and social participants who have to be made to agree. But when the state loses the bludgeon, when you can't control people by force and when the voice of the people can be heard, And the standard way to do this is to resort to what in more honest days used to be called propaganda.
Creation of necessary illusions.The Hollywood Reporter is your source for breaking news about Hollywood and entertainment, including movies, TV, reviews and industry blogs.
I missed posting this on Veterans Day! Some of you may have known (or heard of) my Grandfather, John H. Crosman, Sr. of Orleans. He was a professional artist of considerable national notoriety who donated detailed portraits in pastel or charcoal of family members who served during WWII.
Barack Obama's greatly overrated intellect President Obama's problem is not just inexperience or the fact that he'd rather play golf or basketball than sit in his office and make difficult decisions.
There is a lot of evidence (presented below) that he's just not terribly bright. Origins. Colossal Cave Adventure, created in by Will Crowther on a DEC PDP computer, was the first widely used adventure rutadeltambor.com game was significantly expanded in by Don rutadeltambor.com called Adventure, it contained many D&D features and references, including a computer controlled dungeon master.
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