Business plan small scale mining operations

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Business plan small scale mining operations

In hundreds of children in this area died from severe lead poisoning associated with gold ore processing. Photo courtesy of TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering. Background The mining sector is responsible for some of the largest releases of heavy metals into the environment of any industry.

It also releases other air pollutants including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in addition to leaving behind tons of waste tailings, slag, and acid drainage. Occupational and environmental exposure to heavy metals, silica, and asbestos can occur during mining and milling operations. The smelting process extracting the metal from the ore is associated with the highest exposures and environmental releases.

The hazards to human health caused by exposure to heavy metals — including lead, cadmium and mercury — have been thoroughly documented.

These metals are associated with a range of neurological deficits in both children and adults in addition to a range of other systemic effects. Exposure to airborne silica and asbestos can cause lung cancer, pneumoconiosis and numerous other health effects. Lead and Mercury Emissions from Mining Global releases of lead from smelting and refining nonferrous metals e.

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Even relatively efficient mining operations result in enormous waste, emissions to air and water, and a legacy of environmental contamination in nearby communities.

Around the world, unsafe mining and smelting practices have been responsible for a continuing series of environmental and human health disasters, which cause great human tragedy and undermine social stability, economic development and sustainability goals.

For example, inmore than children died in Zamfara, Nigeria from acute lead poisoning caused by unsafe mining and processing lead-containing gold ore.

business plan small scale mining operations

People grinding the ore, often in and around their homes, contaminated at least villages over a wide area. Even large-scale gold mining has significant mercury releases associated with ore processing. It is now known that significant mercury emissions result from cyanide leaching and even from mine tailings where no mercury has been added.

Photo courtesy of Rodolfo Neiva de Sousa.

business plan small scale mining operations

More commonly, small-scale gold mining utilizes significant quantities of mercury to extract gold from the ore. Exposure to mercury in these operations not only endangers miners and their families, but is also detrimental to the environment when deposited into the water supply.

Artisanal gold mining employs an estimated million miners in more than 55 countries. Many studies have documented significant mercury exposures in these gold mining communities.

In the Madre de Dios region of Peru, gold shops serving small artisanal miners were found to have mercury levels that were more than 20 times the World Health Organization WHO occupational health standard for mercury. Children Are Most Susceptible Children suffer a disproportionate share of the disease burden imposed by mining pollution.

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The International Labour Organization ILO estimates that million children are involved in child labor and that over 70 percent of them face hazardous conditions. Children in Asia, South America, and Africa participate in the mining of gold, tin, and precious metals. Children, who are more susceptible to the impacts of heavy metals, tend to have higher exposures and generally account for the majority of deaths and disease associated with mass poisoning incidents from these operations.

Studies have documented that children involved in mining have higher exposures to mercury, lead, and other metals and suffer severe lead and mercury intoxication. Assessing Hazards from Artisanal Mining in Nigeria InOK International conducted an investigation of artisanal small-scale mines ASM throughout Nigeria to assess health hazards in an effort to prevent tragedies like the one in Zamfara.

We visited gold mines, ore processing sites and lead mines where we collected soil and water samples and completed a hazard evaluation for each site.


We also worked with the Nigerian Ministry of Mines and Steel Development MMSD in coordination with other government agencies to conduct a three-day training session to increase the capacity within government agencies to evaluate hazards in ASM.

These concentrations pose a significant health risk to both the miners and surrounding communities. We also found soil to be contaminated with mercury at gold processing sites where children were conducting amalgamation processes.

In addition to the hazards of toxic metals in the ore, we noted very high silica dust exposures in ore processing. Although some resources have been devoted to environmental remediation and medical treatment of poisoned children in Zamfara, little attention is being paid to the extent of the problem in other areas of Nigeria.

There is no national or state level database of artisanal mines in Nigeria and information about the metal content in ore is lacking. Raising awareness among miners of the hazards and safer mining practices is desperately needed at ASM sites throughout Nigeria in order to prevent the occurrence of more lead and mercury contamination and silicosis.

We are also recommending that the Nigerian authorities conduct a more thorough investigation of gold mines outside Zamfara to characterize locations with significant lead exposure. This shift is particularly clear in the case of lead ore processing.Operating a Bitcoin mining facility can be profitable, but you need to treat it like a business.

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The importance and advantage derived from the establishment of small-scale enterprises in a development country like ours. 4 A Contextual Review of the Ghanaian Small-scale Mining Industry Small-scale mining in Ghana, as in most developing countries, was for decades treated as an informal industrial sector, employing thousands of people but featuring largely.

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Hazardous Child Labor in Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines | HRW