Materials Testing Strain Analysis Strain analysis or stress-strain analysis is a powerful tool for quantifying the changes of a material under the effects of various loading conditions. This technique can be conducted with both physical and optical testing methodologies in a variety of working environments.
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: Received Sep 27; Accepted Jan 7. Copyright notice This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration, which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Figure S1: Comparison of normalized uniquely mapped reads among three runs. All DETs in response to handling and confinement stress identified in this study.
Identifying and characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate the development of strategies that aim to improve animal welfare and aquaculture production efficiency. In this study, we used RNA-seq to identify transcripts which are differentially expressed in the rainbow trout liver in response to handling and confinement stress.
These stressors were selected due to their relevance in aquaculture production. Total RNA was extracted from the livers of individual fish in five tanks having eight An analysis of handling stress each, including three tanks of fish subjected to a 3 hour handling and confinement stress and two control tanks.
Three sequencing runs were conducted to obtain a total of , reads which were mapped onto the previously generated stress reference transcriptome to identify differentially expressed transcripts DETs.
Several gene ontology terms including transcription factor activity and biological process such as glucose metabolic process were enriched among these DETs. Pathways involved in response to handling and confinement stress were implicated by mapping the DETs to reference pathways in the KEGG database.
Customized Perl Scripts All customized scripts described in this paper are available from Dr. Guangtu Gao or the corresponding author. Introduction Aquaculture is the fastest-growing animal food producing sector of agriculture.
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss is not only an important aquaculture species; it is also a primary research model for fish . Fish under intensive rearing conditions experience various stressful conditions such as handling, crowding, sub-optimal water quality and temperature fluctuations.
Stress has been shown to have negative impacts on survival, growth, reproduction and fillet quality therefore to improve production efficiency it is crucial to understand stress responses at the physiological and molecular levels. To this end stress responses have been extensively studied in fishes .
The stress response is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal HPI axis and release of catecholamines from chromaffin cells that induce many biochemical and physiological changes .
The advent of microarray technologies made it possible to observe global changes in gene expression in response to stress and these stress hormones . For instance, a custom microarray was used to study gene expression changes after handling and the 16K microarray for salmonid species was used to study the transcriptome response to heat stress in the red blood cells of rainbow trout .
Although the use of microarrays was a significant advance in exploring the transcriptome response to stress in rainbow trout they have several limitations.
For example, detection is limited to the probes included in the microarray design, the detection range is limited by background signal and signal saturation, and differences in expression between paralogous genes is complicated by cross-hybridization, which is a particular problem for species such as the rainbow trout where more than half of the genes are thought to be duplicated due to a relatively recent whole genome duplication .
High-throughput next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized analyses of genomes and transcriptomes. Transcriptome sequencing, or RNA-seq, overcomes many inherent limitations of microarray technologies, and has emerged recently as a powerful tool to characterize gene expression profiles in both model and non-model species .
Application of RNA-seq has been used in rainbow trout by Morera et al. Although not in rainbow trout, RNA-seq has been used to investigate stress in fish, specifically heat stress in rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi  and catfish Ictalurus spp.
Our long term goal is to identify and characterize genes involved in general and specific stress responses in rainbow trout leading to management or breeding practices that improve production efficiency.The present work used RNA-seq analysis to determine the effects of handling stress on the skeletal muscle transcriptome of G.
chilensis, an important marine fish for the Chilean aquaculture industry. Handling stress induced physiological changes, associated with increases in circulating levels of cortisol, and major changes in global skeletal muscle gene expression. BUY STRESS MANAGEMENT ESSAY PAPER ONLINEThesis statement:Because of the need to improve our daily functioning through the mitigation of stress, there is need to understand what stress is, causes of stress, and ways of recognizing stress and how to apply effective stress management strategies.I.
Stress ManagementA. In summary, handling-stress induced major changes in the red cusk-eel head-kidney response.
Under stress, transcripts, mostly associated with response to stress and immune response, were up-regulated.
Conversely, transcripts, associated with metabolic processes were down-regulated. Stress is such a considerable part of everyone’s daily life.
Between stress in the workplace, to issues at home, the effects of stress and how they can be detrimental to the individual are genuine.
But not everyone is aware that there are right and wrong ways to handle stress. Strain analysis (or stress-strain analysis) is a powerful tool for quantifying the changes of a material under the effects of various loading conditions. This technique can be conducted with both physical and optical testing methodologies in a variety of working environments.
RNA-seq Analysis of Early Hepatic Response to Handling and Confinement Stress in Rainbow Trout. Vijayan MM, Pereira C, Forsyth RB, Kennedy CJ, Iwama GK () Handling stress does not affect the expression of hepatic heat shock protein 70 and conjugation enzymes in rainbow trout treated with beta-naphthoflavone.