A history of collectivism in russia

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A history of collectivism in russia

Alexander Nevsky in the Golden Horde. After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century, the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgariathe last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centered at Phanagoria. The Mongols held Russia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital at Sarai[47] one of the largest cities of the medieval world.

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The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly called Tatars ; [47] but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans. In general, the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished, [47] while the Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh.

To the Orthodox Church and most princes, the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Russian way of life than the Mongols. Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who, hoping to profit from the Russian collapse since the Mongol invasions, tried to grab territory and convert the Russians to Roman Catholicism.

Under Mongol occupation, Russia also developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization. Grand Duchy of Moscow Rise of Moscow[ edit ] During the reign of DanielMoscow was little more than a small timber fort lost in the forests of Central Rus' Daniil Aleksandrovichthe youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, founded the principality of Moscow known as Muscovy in English[44] which first cooperated with and ultimately expelled the Tatars from Russia.

Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state. A major factor in the ascendancy of Moscow was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords, who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Russian principalities.

The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the center of the Russian Orthodox Church. Its head, the Metropolitanfled from Kiev to Vladimir in and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow under the original title of Kiev Metropolitan.

By the middle of the 14th century, the power of the Mongols was declining, and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke. Inat Kulikovo on the Don Riverthe Mongols were defeated, [46] and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Russia, it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy.

Moscow's leadership in Russia was now firmly based and by the middle of the 14th century its territory had greatly expanded through purchase, war, and marriage.

The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III[44] who laid the foundations for a Russian national state.

Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniafor control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins.

A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Europe, Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles. Refusing further tribute to the Tatars, Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Hordenow divided into several Khanates and hordes.

Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes. The manor system provided a basis for an emerging cavalry based army. In this way, internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state.

By the 16th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property. Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories, [49] but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs.

Gradually, the Russian ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. Biographer Fennell concludes that his reign was "militarily glorious and economically sound," and especially points to his territorial annexations and his centralized control over local rulers.

However, Fennell, the leading British specialist on Ivan III, argues that his reign was also "a period of cultural depression and spiritual barrenness. Freedom was stamped out within the Russian lands. By his bigoted anti-Catholicism Ivan brought down the curtain between Russia and the west.

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For the sake of territorial aggrandizement he deprived his country of the fruits of Western learning and civilization. The development of the Tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign of Ivan IV —known as "Ivan the Terrible".

Through these conquests, Russia acquired a significant Muslim Tatar population and emerged as a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. Also around this period, the mercantile Stroganov family established a firm foothold in the Urals and recruited Russian Cossacks to colonise Siberia.SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present.

Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany. Introduction.

A history of collectivism in russia

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).

Russia today is in the throes of a fundamental cultural struggle as it seeks to come to terms with modernity. Slavic collectivism of many centuries' standing is now rapidly giving way to a new individualism, although Russia is still far less individualistic than is .

By the end of the s, it was clear that Russian agriculture was inadequate. Although the kulaks [Kulaks: Wealthy Russian farming peasants, who strongly opposed collectivisation - Stalin killed many.] were relatively wealthy and successful, the thousands of tiny, backward peasant farms were not producing enough to feed the population.

What is Individualism? What is Collectivism? Marxist socialism takes the “economic class” as the entity that acts to shape history. (“The proletariat (workers) will unite to overthrow the bourgeoisie (property owners).”) Were the gulag prisoners in Soviet Russia better off for being Russians?

Were the Jonestown members who drank. Where individualism and collaboration are concerned, one study looked at the behavior of Russian immigrants in American corporations and found them exhibiting Russian-style individualism, self-confidence, and a lack of desire to share resources — all this despite the declared Soviet value of collectivism.

rutadeltambor.com prides itself (or more accurately brags) that it squashes false “rumors,” quotations and misstatements in the web. A good example is debunking the fallacious statement of Putin about Muslims in Russia: “FALSE: Vladimir Putin Anti-Muslim Speech” circulated in the web.

The Theory And Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism - War is Peace